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2012年考研英語模擬題精選(1)

2012-06-14 11:07       來源:中國在職研究生網    http://www.iarmkw.shop

2012年考研英語模擬題精選(1)

Read the following text. Choose the best word(s)from each numbered blank and mark A,B,C or D on ANSWER SHEET 1.(10 points)

一、美陪審團制度

As former colonists of Great Britain,the Founding Fathers of the United States adopted much of the legal system of Great Britain. We have a"common law",or law made by courts__1__a monarch or other central governmental__2__like a legislature. The jury,a__3__of ordinary citizens chosen to decide a case,is an__4__ part of our common-law system.

Use of juries to decide cases is a__5__feature of the American legal system. Few other countries in the world use juries as we do in the United States.__6__the centuries,many people have believed that juries in most cases reach a fairer and more just result__7__would be obtained using a judge__8__,as many countries do.__9__a jury decides cases after"__10__",or discussions among a group of people,the jury´s decision is likely to have the__11__ from many different people from different backgrounds,who must as a group decide what is right.

Juries are used in both civil cases,which decide__12__ among__13__ citizens,and criminal cases,which decide cases brought by the government __14__ that individuals have committed crimes. Juries are selected from the U.S. citizens and__15__. Jurors,consisting of __16__ numbers,are called for each case requiring a jury.

The judge__17__to the case__18__the selection of jurors to serve as the jury for that case. In some states,__19__jurors are questioned by the judge;in others,they are questioned by the lawyers representing the__20__under rules dictated by state law.

1. [A] other than [B] rather than [C] more than [D] or rather

2. [A] agency [B] organization [C] institution [D] authority

3. [A] panel [B] crew [C] band [D] flock

4. [A] innate [B] intact [C] integral [D] integrated

5. [A]discriminating[B] distinguishing [C] determining [D] diminishing

6. [A] in [B] by [C] after [D] over

7. [A] that [B] which [C] than [D] as

8. [A] alike [B] alone [C] altogether [D] apart

9. [A] Although [B] Because [C] If [D] While

10.[A] deliberations [B] meditations [C] reflections [D] speculations

11.[A] outline [B] outcome [C] input [D] intake

12.[A] arguments [B] controversies [C] disputes [D] hostilities

13.[A] fellow [B] individual [C] personal [D] private

14.[A] asserting [B] alleging [C] maintaining [D] testifying

15.[A] assembled [B] evoked [C] rallied [D] summoned

16.[A] set [B] exact [C] given [D] placed

17.[A] allocated [B] allotted [C] appointed [D] assigned

18.[A] administers [B] manages [C] oversees [D] presides

19.[A] inspective [B] irrespective [C] perspective [D] prospective

20.[A] bodies [B] parties [C] sides [D] units

答案

1. B 2. D 3. A 4. C 5. B 6. D 7.C 8.B 9. B 10. A

11. C 12. C 13.D 14.B 15. D 16. A 17. D 18. C 19. D 20. B

總體分析

本文介紹了美國的陪審團制度。第一段指出,陪審團是美國共同法系統的基本組成部分。第二段分析了使用陪審團的原因。第三和四段分別介紹了陪審團的類型和選舉程序。

全文翻譯

美國的建國之父們作為大英帝國的前殖民者沿襲了其法律系統。我們有"共同法",即由法庭而非君主或其他像立法機關這樣的中央政府權利機關制定的法律。陪審團由一群選來裁決案件的普通公民組成,是我們共同法系統基本的組成部分。

使用陪審團裁決案件是美國法律系統的一個顯著特征。在世界上很少有其他國家和美國一樣使用陪審團。幾個世紀以來,許多人已經相信在大多數情況下陪審團比許多國家那樣單獨使用一位法官達成的結果更公平、公正。因為陪審團裁決案件是在一群人"審議"或討論后,因此他們的決定可能受到不同背景的不同人的影響,這些人必須作為一個團體來決定什么是正確的。

陪審團既被用在裁決普通公民之間糾紛的民事案件中,也用在裁決政府提出訟訴聲稱個人犯罪的刑事案件中。陪審團成員從美國公民中選出并被傳喚。由固定人數組成的陪審團在每一個需要陪審團的案件中都會被召喚。

被指派負責案件的法官監督陪審團成員的選舉。在一些州,未來的陪審團成員由法官詢問,而在另一些州,他們遵照州法律規定的法規接受代表各方當事人的律師的詢問。

 


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